Monday, March 21, 2011

Well, now this is cool!

 I bet you cant guess where this viewer is from.


I couldn't even guess and I already know...

(yeah, work that one out...)

Archaen's newest highlighted viewer hails from the mystical land of....





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Top: Baku Bay, Baku Business Centre
Center: Heydar Aliyev Palace, Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall
Bottom: Maiden Tower, Government House, Baku TV Tower.

Baku is located in Azerbaijan
Location in Azerbaijan
Coordinates: 40°23′43″N 49°52′56″E / 40.39528°N 49.88222°E / 40.39528; 49.88222Coordinates: 40°23′43″N 49°52′56″E / 40.39528°N 49.88222°E / 40.39528; 49.88222
Country  Azerbaijan
 - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov
 - Total 2,130 km2 (822.4 sq mi)
Elevation -28 m (-92 ft)
Population (2009)[2]
 - Total 2,039,700
 - Density 957.6/km2 (2,480.2/sq mi)
Time zone AZT (UTC+4)
 - Summer (DST) AZST (UTC+5)
Postal code AZ1000
Area code(s) 12
Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital, the largest city, and the largest port of Azerbaijan and entire Caucasus. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, that projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal parts: the downtown and the old Inner City (21.5 ha). Baku's urban population at the beginning of 2009 was estimated at just over two million people.[2]
Baku is divided into eleven administrative districts (raions) and 48 townships. Among these are the townships on islands in the Baku Bay and the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 km (37 mi) away from Baku. The Inner City of Baku along with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. According to the Lonely Planet's ranking Baku is also amongst the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife.[3]
The city also serves as the main economic hub of Azerbaijan. Many sizeable Azerbaijani institutions have their headquarters there, including SOCAR, one of the world's top 100 companies.[4] The Baku International Sea Trade Port, sheltered by the islands of the Baku Archipelago to the east and the Abseron Peninsula to the north, is capable to handle two million tons of general and dry bulk cargoes per year.[5]



[edit] Etymology

The name Baku is widely believed to be derived from the old Persian names of the city باد-که Bād-kube, meaning "Wind-pounded city", in which bād means "wind" and kube is rooted in the verb کوبی kubidan, "to pound", thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding. Indeed, the city is renowned for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds.[6] It is also believed that Baku refers to Baghkuh, meaning "Mount of God". Baga (now باغ bagh) and kaufa (now kuh) are the Old Persian words for "god" and "mountain" respectively; the name Baghkuh may be compared with Baghdād ("God-given") in which dād is the Old Persian word for "give". Arabic sources refer to the city as Baku, Bakukh, Bakuya, and Bakuye, all of which seem to come from a Persian name.
Various different hypotheses were also proposed to explain the etymology of the word Baku. According to L.G.Lopatinski[7] and Ali Huseynzade[8] Baku is derived from Turkic word for "hill". Caucasian history specialist K.P. Patkanov also explains the name as "hill" but in the Lak language.[8] The Turkish Islamic Encyclopedia presents the origin of the word Baku as being derived from the words Bey-Kyoy, which mean "the main city" in Turkic. Also another theory suggest that the name Baku is derived from the ancient Caucasian Albanian city which present was called Baguan.

[edit] History

Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Type Cultural
Criteria iv
Reference 958
Region** Middle East
Inscription history
Inscription 2000  (24th Session)
Endangered 2003-2009
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
The ancient site of Fire Temple at Surakhany and its surroundings
The first written evidence for Baku dates to the 1st century AD[9] Much of its history since that time has been linked to various Achaemenid Empire.
The city became important after an earthquake destroyed Shamakhy in the 12th century, when the ruling Shirvanshah, Ahsitan I, chose Baku as the new capital. In 1501, Safavid Shah Ismail I laid siege to Baku. At this time the city was however enclosed within the lines of strong walls, which were washed by the sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land. In 1540 Baku was again captured by the Safavid troops. In 1604 the Baku fortress was destroyed by Safavid shah Abbas I.
On 26 June 1723, after a lasting siege using cannons, Baku surrendered to the Russians. According to Peter the Great's decree the soldiers of two regiments (2,382 people) were left in the Baku garrison under the command of Prince Baryatyanski, the commandant of the city. In 1795, Baku was invaded by Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar to defend against tsarist Russia's ambitions to subjugate the South Caucasus. In the spring of 1796, by Catherine II's order, General Zubov's troops began a major campaign in Transcaucasia. Baku surrendered after the first demand of Zubov who had sent 6,000 troops to capture the city. On 13 June 1796 the Russian flotilla entered Baku Bay and a garrison of Russian troops was placed in the city. General Pavel Tsitsianov was appointed Baku's commandant. Later, however, Czar Paul I ordered him to cease the campaign and withdraw Russian forces. In March 1797 the tsarist troops left Baku but a new tsar, Alexander I, began to show a special interest in capturing Baku. In 1803, Tsitsianov reached an agreement with the Baku khan to compromise, but the agreement was soon annulled. On 8 February 1806, upon the surrendering of Baku, Huseyngulu khan of Baku stabbed and killed Tsitsianov at the gates of the city.
In 1813, Russia signed the Treaty of Gulistan with Persia, which provided for the cession of Baku and most of the Caucasus from Iran and their annexation by Russia.

[edit] Oil boom

An oil refinery in Baku in the early 20th century.
The first oil well was mechanically drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846, though a number of hand-dug wells predate it. Large-scale oil exploration started in 1872, when Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku to private investors. Within a short period of time Swiss, British, French, Belgian, German, Swedish and American investors appeared in Baku, among them were the firms of the Nobel brothers together with the family von Börtzell-Szuch (Carl Knut Börtzell, who also owned the Livadia Palace) and the Rothschild family. An industrial oil belt, better known as Black City, was established near Baku. By the beginning of the 20th century almost half of world production was being extracted in Baku.[10]
In 1917, after the October revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire, Baku came under the control of the Baku Commune, which was led by veteran Bolshevik Stepan Shaumyan. Seeking to capitalize on the existing inter-ethnic conflicts, by spring 1918, Bolsheviks inspired and condoned civil warfare in and around Baku. During the infamous March Days, Bolsheviks and Dashnaks seeking to establish control over the Baku streets, faced with armed Muslim groups. Muslims suffered a crushing defeat by the united forces of the Baku Soviet and then felt the whole unbridled ferocity of Dashnak teams. Some 12 000 Azeri became the victims of the massacre carried out by radical Armenians and Bolshevik troops.[11][12][13][14]
On 28 May 1918, the Azerbaijani faction of the Transcaucasian Sejm proclaimed the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) in Ganja. Shortly after, Azerbaijani forces, with support of the Ottoman Army of Islam led by Nuru Pasha, started their advance into Baku, eventually capturing the city from the loose coalition of Bolsheviks, Esers, Dashnaks, Mensheviks and British forces under the command of General Lionel Dunsterville on 15 September 1918. Thousands of Armenians in the city were massacred in revenge for the earlier March Days.[15] Baku became the capital of the ADR. On 28 April 1920, the 11th Red Army invaded Baku and reinstalled the Bolsheviks, making Baku the capital of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic.

[edit] Geography

Baku is situated on the western coast of Caspian Sea. In the vicinities of the city there are a number of mud volcanoes (Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others) and salt lakes (Boyukshor, Khodasan etc.).

[edit] Climate

Baku has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with hot and dry summers and cold and occasionally wet winters. However, unlike many other cities with this climate, Baku does not see extremely hot summers. This is basically due to its northerly latitude and the fact that it is located on a peninsula on the shore of the Caspian Sea. Baku and the Absheron Peninsula on which it is situated, is the most arid part of Azerbaijan (precipitation here is around or less than 200 mm (8 in) a year). The majority of the light annual precipitation occurs outside summer, but none of these months are particularly wet. During Soviet times, Baku with its long hours of sunshine and dry healthy climate, was a vacation destination where citizens could enjoy beaches or relax in now-dilapidated spa complexes overlooking the Caspian Sea. The city's past as a Soviet industrial center has left it as one of the most polluted cities in the world.[16]
At the same time Baku is noted as a very windy city throughout the year, and gale-force winds, the cold northern wind khazri and the warm southern wind gilavar are typical here in all seasons. Indeed, the city is renowned for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds.[6] The speed of the khazri sometimes reaches 144 kph (89 mph), which can cause damage to crops, trees and roof tiles.[17]
The daily mean temperature in July and August averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and there is very little rainfall during that season. During summer the khazri sweeps through which brings desired coolness in summer. Winter is cold and occasionally wet, with the daily mean temperature in January and February averaging 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). During winter the khazri sweeps through; driven by masses of polar air, temperatures on the coast frequently drop below freezing and makes it feel bitterly cold. Winter snow storms do occur, but are rare and snow usually remains only for a few days after each snowfall.
The average annual temperature in Baku and that of the Earth differ by less than 0.1 °C (0.18 °F) : it is 14.2 °C (57.6 °F).[18]
[hide]Climate data for Baku
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.4
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
Precipitation mm (inches) 21
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 2 6 6 6 49
Sunshine hours 89.9 89.0 124.0 195.0 257.3 294.0 313.1 282.1 222.0 145.7 93.0 102.3 2,207.4
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN),[19] Hong Kong Observatory[20] for data of sunshine hours

[edit] Administrative divisions

Today, Baku is divided into 11 raions (administrative districts) and 5 settlements of city type.[21][22] The mayor, presently Hajibala Abutalybov, embodies the executive power of the city.[23]

[edit] Demographics

Until 1988 Baku had very large Armenian, Russian, and Jewish populations which contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways (music, literature, architecture) to Baku's history. Under Communism, the Soviets took over the majority of Jewish property in Baku and Kuba. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliev has returned several synagogues and a Jewish college nationalized by the Soviets to the Jewish community. He has encouraged the restoration of these buildings and is well-liked by the Jews of Azerbaijan. Renovation has begun on seven of the original eleven synagogues, including the Gilah synagogue, built in 1896, and the large Kruei Synagogue.[24] The new Azerbaijan constitution grants religious freedom and asserts that there is no state religion.
Today the vast majority of the population of Baku are ethnic Azerbaijanis (more than 90%). The intensive growth of the population started in the middle of the 19th century when Baku was a small town with the population of about 7 thousand people. The population increased again from about 13,000 in the 1860s to 112,000 in 1897 and 215,000 in 1913, making Baku the largest city in the Caucasus region.[25]
Baku has been a cosmopolitan city at certain times during its history, meaning ethnic Azerbaijanis did not constitute the majority of population.[26] In 2003 Baku additionally had 153,400 internally displaced persons and 93,400 refugees.[27]
Year Azerbaijanis Russians Armenians Iranian Citizens Germans Jews Georgians Total
1897 40,148 37,399 19,060 9,426 2,460 2,341 971 111,904
1903 44,257 56,955 26,151 11,132 3,749 n/a n/a 155,876
1913 45,962 76,288 41,680 25,096 3,274 9,690 4,073 214,672

[edit] Economy

Baku's largest industry is petroleum, and its petroleum exports make it a large contributor to the Azerbaijan's balance of payments. The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku.[28] By the 15th century, oil for lamps was obtained from hand-dug surface wells. Commercial exploitation began in 1872, and by the beginning of the 20th century the Baku oil fields were the largest in the world. Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore. By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku. By 1900 the city had more than 3,000 oil wells, of which 2,000 were producing oil at industrial levels. Baku ranked as one of the largest centres for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II. The World War II Battle of Stalingrad was fought to determine who would have control of the Baku oil fields. Fifty years before the battle, Baku produced half of the world's oil supply: Azerbaijan and the United States are the only two countries ever to have been the world's majority oil producer.[citation needed] Currently the oil economy of Baku is undergoing a resurgence, with the development of the massive Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli field (Shallow water Gunashli by SOCAR, deeper areas by a consortium led by BP), development of the Shah Deniz gas field, the expansion of the Sangachal Terminal and the construction of the BTC Pipeline.
The Baku Stock Exchange is Azerbaijan's largest stock exchange, and largest in the Caucasian region by market capitalization. A relatively large number of transnational companies are headquartered in Baku. International banks with branches in Baku include HSBC, Société Générale and Credit Suisse.[29]
According to the Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Baku ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Vienna and Berlin in 2009.[30][31]

[edit] Tourism and shopping

Baku is one of Caucasus most important tourist destinations; with hotels in city earning 7 million euros in 2009.[32] Many sizeable world hotel chains have presence in the city. Baku boasts many popular tourist and entertainment spots, such as the downtown Fountains Square, the One and Thousand Nights Beach, Shikhov Beach and Oil Rocks. Baku's vicinities feature Yanar Dag, an ever-blazing spot of natural gas. On 2 September 2010, with the innauguration of National Flag Square, Baku became home to world's tallest flagpole, included to the Guinness Book of Records.[33][34]
Baku has several shopping malls, including Park Bulvar and the Amay Shopping Center, Azerbaijan's largest inner city shopping mall. The retail areas contain shops from chain stores up to high-end boutiques such as Gucci, Emporio Armani, Versace, Burberry, Salvatore Ferragamo, Dolce & Gabbana and Bulgari.

[edit] Culture

The city has many amenities that offer a wide range of cultural activities, drawing both from a rich local dramatic portfolio and an international repertoire. It also boasts many museums, most notably featuring historical artifacts and art. Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in 2009 when Baku was designated an Islamic Culture Capital.[35] Baku also chosen to host Eurovision Dance Contest 2010.
Among Baku's prestigious cultural venues are Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall, Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre. The main movie theatre is Azerbaijan Cinema. Festivals include the Baku International Film Festival, Baku International Jazz Festival, Novruz Festival, Gül Bayramı (Flower Festival) and the National Theater Festival.[36][37]

[edit] Architecture

A classical Azerbaijan Democratic Republic-era building
Baku has wildly varying architecture, ranging from the Old City core to modern buildings and the spacious layout of Baku port. Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built during the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic period, when architectural elements of the European styles were combined in eclectic style.[38] Baku thus has an original and unique appearance, earning it a reputation as the 'Paris of the East'.[39]
Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the early 2000s. With economic development, old buildings such as Atlant House were razed to make way for new ones. Buildings with all-glass shells have appeared around the city, the most prominent examples being the SOCAR Tower and Flame Towers.

[edit] Historical core

Part of the Inner City
Most of the walls and towers, strengthened after the Russian conquest in 1806, survived. This section is picturesque, with its maze of narrow alleys and ancient buildings: the cobbled streets past the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, two caravansaries, the baths and the Juma Mosque (which used to house the Azerbaijan National Carpet and Arts Museum, but is now a mosque again). The old town core also has dozens of small mosques, often without any particular sign to distinguish them as such.
In 2003, UNESCO placed the Inner City on the List of World Heritage in Danger, citing damage from a November 2000 earthquake, poor conservation as well as "dubious" restoration efforts.[40]

[edit] Parks and gardens

The sculpture of Bahram Gur on Azneft Square.
Baku has large sections of greenery either preserved by the National Government or designated as green zones. The city, however, continues to lack a green belt development as economic activity pours into the capital, resulting in massive housing projects along the suburbs.[41]
Baku Boulevard is a pedestrian promenade that runs parallel to Baku's seafront. The boulevard contains an amusement park, yacht club, musical fountain, statues and monuments. The park is popular with dog-walkers and joggers, and is convenient for tourists. It is adjacent to the newly built International Center of Mugham and the musical fountain.
Other prominent parks and gardens include Heydar Aliyev Park, Samad Vurgun Park, Narimanov Park and the Fountains Square. The Martyrs' Lane, formerly the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives during the Nagorno-Karabakh War and also to the 137 people killed on Black January.

[edit] Nightlife

Baku boasts a vibrant nightlife. Many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city. Clubs with an eastern flavor provide special treats of cuisine of Azerbaijan along with local music. Western-style clubs target younger, more energetic crowds.[42] Most of the public houses and bars are located near Fountains Square and are usually open until the early hours of the morning.
Baku is home to restaurants catering to every cuisine and occasion. Restaurants range from being luxurious and expensive to ordinary and affordable.[43]
In the Lonely Planet "1000 Ultimate Experiences", Baku was placed at the 8th spot among the top 10 party cities in the world.[3][44]

[edit] Music and media

The music scene in Baku can be traced back to ancient times and villages of Baku, generally revered as the fountainhead of meykhana and mugham in the Azerbaijan.[45][46]
In recent years, the success of Azerbaijani performers such as AySel, Safura, Elnur Hüseynov and Arash in Eurovision has significantly boosted the profile of the Baku music scene, prompting international attention.
"The 2005" was a landmark in the development of jazz in the city. It has been home to legendary jazz musicians like Vagif Mustafazadeh, Aziza Mustafa Zadeh, Rafig Babayev and Rain Sultanov.[47][48] Among Baku's prominent annual fairs and festivals is Baku International Jazz Festival, which includes the world's most identifiable jazz names.[49][50]
Baku also has a thriving International Center of Mugham, which is located in Baku Boulevard.[51]
The majority of Azerbaijan's media companies (including television, newspaper and radio, such as ANS, Azad Azerbaijan TV, Ictimai TV or Lider TV) are headquartered in Baku. The films The World Is Not Enough and The Diamond Arm are set in the city, while Amphibian Man includes several scenes filmed in Old City.
Out of the city's radio stations ANS ChM, Ictimai Radio, Radio Antenn, Burc FM, and Lider FM Jazz are some of the more influential competitors with large national audiences. ANS ChM was one of the first private and independent FM radio broadcasting service in the Caucasus and Central Asia regions when it was established in May 1994.[52]
Some of the most influential Baku newspapers include the daily Zaman (The Time), Bakinskiy Rabochiy (The Baku Worker), Echo and the English-language Baku Today.

[edit] Sports

The city's three main football clubs are Neftchi Baku, FK Baku and Inter Baku of whom first two play at the Tofik Bakhramov Stadium. Neftchi has won five Azerbaijani titles, whilst FK Baku and Inter Baku have just two titles for each. Baku also has several clubs in the premier and regional leagues, including AZAL and MOIK Baku in Premier League, Adliyya Baku and Bakili Baku in Azerbaijani First Division.
In the Azerbaijan Basketball League, Baku is represented by Gala BC Baku, BC Aztop Baku, NTD Devon Baku whose home is the Palace of Hand Games.[53] The city also is home of the volleyball clubs such as Rabita Baku, Azerrail Baku, Lokomotiv Baku, Igtisadchi Baku and Nagliyatchi VC.
First class sporting facilities were built for the indoor games, including the Palace of Hand Games and Heydar Aliyev Sports and Exhibition Complex. It hosted many sporting events, including Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships in 2007 and 2009, 2005 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships, 2007 FILA Wrestling World Championships and 2010 European Wrestling Championships, 2009 Women's Challenge Cup and European Taekwondo Championships in 2007.[54][55]
Baku is also one of world's leading chess centres, having produced famous grandmasters like Teimour Radjabov, Vugar Gashimov, Gary Kasparov, Faik Hasanov and Rauf Mammadov. The city also annually hosts the international tournaments such as Baku Chess Grand Prix, President's Cup, Baku Open and currently bidding to host 42nd Chess Olympiad in 2014.[56][57]
On July 18, 2011 the city will host WTA tennis event called Baku Cup for the first time.[58]
Baku was bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but was eliminated on June 4, 2008[59] and is now bidding for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

[edit] Transportation

Throughout history the transportation system of Baku used the now defunct horsecars, trams and narrow gauge railways. As of 2011, 1000 black cabs are ordered by Baku Taxi Company and plan is part of a program originally announced by the Transport Ministry of Azerbaijan to introduce London cabs into Baku.[60][61] The move was part of £16 million agreement between Manganese Bronze and Baku Taxi Company.[62][63]

[edit] Airports

The Heydar Aliyev International Airport is the only commercial airport serving Baku. The new Baku Cargo Terminal was officially opened in March 2005. It was constructed to be a major cargo hub in the CIS countries and is actually now one of the biggest and most technically advanced in the region.[64]
There are also several smaller military airbases near Baku, such as Baku Kala Air Base, intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters.[65]

[edit] Navigation

Sea transport is vital for Baku, as the city is practically surrounded by the Caspian Sea from the east. Shipping services operate regularly from Baku across the Caspian Sea to Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk) in Turkmenistan and to Bandar Anzali and Bandar Nowshar in Iran.[66]
The commuter ferries, along with the high speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz Avtobusu), also form the main connection between the city and the Absheron peninsula.[67]

[edit] Port

Baku Port
The Baku Port was founded in 1902 and since then has been the largest Caspian Sea port. It has six facilities: the main cargo terminal, the container terminal, the ferry terminal, the oil terminal, the passenger terminal and the port fleet terminal. The port`s throughput capacity reaches up to 15 million tons of liquid bulk and up to 10 million tons of dry cargoes.[68] The Baku International Sea Port is being reconstructed since 2010. The construction will take in three stages and will be completed by 2016. The estimated costs are 400 Million US$.[69]
From April to November the Baku Port is accessible for ships loading cargoes for direct voyages from Western European and Mediterranean ports.

[edit] Motorways

The State Road M-1 and the European route E60 are the two main motorway connections between Europe and Azerbaijan. The motorway network around Baku is well developed and is constantly being extended.

[edit] Metro

20 Yanvar station during Black January, 2011.
Local transport includes the Baku Metro, a rapid transit system notable for its art, murals, mosaics, and ornate chandeliers. Baku Metro was opened in November, 1967 and includes 22 stations at present, while 170 million people used Baku Metro over the past five years.[70]
In 2008, the Chief of the Baku Metro, Taghi Ahmadov, announced plans to construct 41 new stations over the next 17 years. These will serve the new bus complex as well as the international airport.[71]

[edit] Railways

The Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway, that will directly connect Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan began to be constructed in 2007 and is scheduled for completion by 2012.[72] The completed branch will connect Baku with Tbilisi in Georgia, from where trains will continue to Akhalkalaki, and Kars in Turkey.[73]

[edit] Education

Baku has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Azerbaijan's most prestigious universities are in Baku, including Baku State University, Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Academy of Public Administration, Azerbaijan Medical University, and Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Some of the biggest educational institutions in Baku are Azerbaijan State Economic University, Azerbaijan Technical University, Azerbaijan Architecture and Construction University, Azerbaijan University of Languages, Baku Slavic University, Azerbaijan Tourism Institute and Baku Academy of Music.
After Azerbaijan gained independence, the fall of communism led to development of a number of private institutions, including Qafqaz University, Odlar Yurdu University, Khazar University and Western University.
Publicly run kindergartens and elementary schools (years 1 through 11), are operated by local wards or municipal offices.

[edit] Notable residents

Commemorative plaque featuring Baku-born Nobel laureate in Physics Lev Landau at the Nizami Street, where he lived.
Because of intermittent periods of great prosperity and as the largest city in the Caucasus and one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in the Soviet Union, Baku prides itself on having produced a disproportionate number of notable figures in the sciences, arts and other fields. Some of the houses they resided in display commemorative plaques.

[edit] International relations

[edit] Twin towns and sister cities

Baku is twinned with:[74][in chronological order]

State / Province / Region / Governorate Date
Senegal Senegal Dakar CoA.gif Dakar Logo council region dakar.png Dakar Region 1967[75][76]
Italy Italy CoA Città di Napoli.svg Naples Flag of Campania.png Campania 1972[77]
Iraq Iraq
Basra Governorate 1972[75]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Coat of arms of Sarajevo.svg Sarajevo Flag of Sarajevo Canton.png Sarajevo Canton 1975[75][76]
United States United States Seal of Houston, Texas.png Houston Flag of Texas.svg Texas 1976[78]
France France Blason ville fr Bordeaux (Gironde).svg Bordeaux
Aquitaine 1979[75]
Iran Iran Tabriz Logo.jpg Tabriz
East Azarbaijan Province 1980[76]
Germany Germany Coat of arms of Mainz-2008 new.svg Mainz Flag of Rhineland-Palatinate.svg Rhineland-Palatinate 1984[76]
Turkey Turkey Rufus-İzmir Municipality.png Izmir
İzmir Province 1985<[79]
Vietnam Vietnam
Vũng Tàu
Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province 1985[75]

[edit] Partnership relations

Partnership relations also exist at different levels with:[80] Berlin, Paris, Aberdeen, Vienna, Stavanger, Tbilisi, Astana, Minsk, Moscow, Volgograd, Kizlyar, Tashkent and Chengdu.

[edit] Gallery

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